In this respect, genetic engineering could be a boon for improving in the yield of bioactive metabolites as the biosynthetic pathways can be manipulated through recombinant DNA technology

In this respect, genetic engineering could be a boon for improving in the yield of bioactive metabolites as the biosynthetic pathways can be manipulated through recombinant DNA technology. extraction strategies so far has prevented their exploitation on a large scale. Standardization and optimization of extraction procedures are urgently required, as processing conditions can affect the qualitative and quantitative properties of these biomolecules. Valorization routes for such raw materials can provide a great additional value for companies involved in the field of bioprospecting. The present review aims at collecting current knowledge GW 766994 on fishery by-catch or by-products, exploring the valorization of their active biomolecules, in application of the circular economy paradigm applied to the fishery field. It will address specific issues from a biorefinery perspective: (i) fish tissues and organs as potential sources of metabolites, antibiotics and probiotics; (ii) screening for bioactive compounds; (iii) extraction GW 766994 processes and innovative technologies for purification and chemical characterization; (iv) energy production technologies for the exhausted biomass. We provide a general perspective on the techno-economic feasibility and the environmental footprint of the production process, as well as on the definition of legal constraints for the new products production and commercial use. GVC11 and of an hydrolysate rich in amino acids. Fish bone is obtained after removal of muscle fillet from the frames; a superheated steam treatment allows a better bone recovery and reduced loss of soluble GW 766994 components from fish tissue [14]. Fish bone provides a valuable source of organic components (collagen and gelatin); inorganic substances contained in fish bone are mostly displayed by calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. Therefore, fish bone is considered as a potential source GW 766994 of calcium, which is an essential element for human being health. However, its incorporation like a food ingredient requires a initial conversion into an edible form through thermal treatment with water and acetic acid. Attempts have been made to use hydroxyapatite isolated from fish bone in substitution of synthetic hydroxyapatite in a range of medical and Spi1 dental care applications (for quick bone restoration after traumatic events [28]) because of the similar chemical composition. Fish hydroxyapatite shows a high mechanical resistance under physiological conditions, and is thermodynamically stable at physiological pH. It is isolated from fish bone by thermal treatment at a very high temperature (1300 C), so as to increase the GW 766994 mechanical resistance of its structure and provide a biocompatible material. Fish pores and skin is considered as a source of collagen and antimicrobial compounds that contribute to provide a 1st barrier against pathogens assault [29]. Mucus covering the pores and skin is definitely secreted by goblet, sacciform, and golf club cells and contains several antimicrobial factors, such as proteins, lysozyme, immunoglobulin and lectins [30]. Fish viscera, including belly, gut, liver, account for up to 12C18% of the whole fish total body; as for their composition, proteins represent 15% of the total excess weight of viscera. They may be recognized to become an important source of enzymes and also of probiotic candidates that can be isolated from fish guts, as extensively reported below [19]. 3. High Value Compounds (Active Metabolites or Bioactive Products) from Fishery By-Catch and/or Control By-Products The composition of fish bodies is largely variable, depending on several factors (varieties, age, nutritional status, sex, time of year and health). However, a large fraction is displayed by 15C30% protein (higher in salmon and reduced flounder), 0C25% extra fat (higher content material in mackerel and reduced cod).