Samples of ileum and caecum from the two groups were examined by conventional histochemistry to analyze complex carbohydrates and by immunohistochemistry to detect Bcl-2 Associate X protein (BAX), an indicator of oxidative stress

Samples of ileum and caecum from the two groups were examined by conventional histochemistry to analyze complex carbohydrates and by immunohistochemistry to detect Bcl-2 Associate X protein (BAX), an indicator of oxidative stress. a lower presence of BAX Clemastine fumarate in O group. The OAE supplementation improved Clemastine fumarate the production of glycoconjugates, able to enhance in pig the protection of intestinal mucosa by means of direct and indirect defense actions. The reduced BAX immunostaining observed in O group may be an indicator of enhanced antioxidant action promoted by oregano. The results of this study can be used in further research to identify ways to improve endogenous defence ability, with the aim of reducing antibiotic use and preventing antimicrobial resistance. L, glycohistochemistry, immunohistochemistry, BAX Introduction A number of studies in recent years have focused on the use of natural compounds from herbs and spices as an alternative to synthetic antibiotics, in order to avoid the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.1 Among the officinal plants, L., belonging to Lamiaceae family, has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, anti-parasitic, anti-viral, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-cholinesterase, diaphoretic, carminative, antispasmodic and analgesic activities, which are mainly attributed to its components carvacrol, limonene, gamma-caryophyllene, rhocymenene, camphor, linalool, alphapinene and thymol.2,3 Of particular interest among the oregano properties are its antioxidant and antibacterial ones. The oxidative reactions that can take place in cells may produce Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and free radicals that, if not properly disposed of, can lead to the pathological condition of oxidative stress. Currently, the oxidative stress is defined as a situation in which steady-state ROS concentration is transiently or chronically enhanced, disturbing cellular metabolism and its regulation and, in turn, damaging cellular constituents.4,5 Oxidative stress may be induced either by externally added oxidants and compounds or stimulating ROS production and weakening antioxidant defence.6 The antioxidants protect the cells, and thus protect the whole organism, because they give the possibility to living organisms to adjust their defense systems to enhanced ROS levels. The antioxidant properties of oregano have been attributed to the phenolic and flavonoid compounds it contains.7 Just as the antioxidant properties of oregano have been attributed in part to its content in phenolic compounds, so its antibacterial action against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria has been related to these components, in particular, their hydroxyl groups, which alter bacterial membrane integrity.8 The use of oregano essential oil (EO) has been examined in animal nutrition studies and the effects of EO compounds as antimicrobials against gut pathogens are documented. 9-12 It has long been known that infusions of herb mixtures, given to piglets as a preventive therapy, reduce Rabbit Polyclonal to MAD4 the incidence of diarrhea and mortality, relieves gastrointestinal problems, stimulates appetite, feed intake and conversion, and increases the growth rate of piglets and weaners.13 A recent study showed that diet supplementation with oregano induces a higher glycoconjugate (GC) production in chicken broiler gut. In addition, other authors showed that the GCs produced by the goblet cells of the intestinal mucosal layer could be modified by the dietary variations, and also by vitamin and enzyme supplementation. 14,15 In this context, studies have pointed to the importance of GCs in animal biology. GCs are carbohydrates of varying size and complexity, covalently linked to non-sugar moieties such as proteins, peptides, and lipids. Several studies have reported that these complex carbohydrates not only provide energy and structural materials but also participate in a plethora of biological processes. 16,17 The molecular and supramolecular scaffold of GCs enable them to perform a variety of functions, such as viral entry, signal transduction, inflammation, cell-cell interactions, bacteriahost interactions, fertility and development.18 Once secreted, the GCs cover the mucosa creating a continuous gel layer, which performs various functions: lubrication, barrier for certain low molecular weight solutes, proteolytic degradation and a physical/chemical barrier for microorganisms, parasites and their toxins.19,20 The biological relevance of complex carbohydrates is also indicated by their great variety in the same apparatus among different animal species, among different apparatuses of an animal species, and among different districts of the same apparatus.21-33 Many studies have explored the effect of oregano EO on different organ tissues, but to the best of our knowledge, few studies have focused on the effects of dietary administration of oregano aqueous extract (OAE) on animal Clemastine fumarate diets, even though these products offer the advantages of containing the complete phyto-complexes rather than just the oily fraction, and of being solvent-free.9,14,34-38 On the basis of the considerations described above, this research evaluated the effects of diet supplementation with OAE on complex carbohydrates in pig ileum and caecum, detected by glycohistochemistry, and on oxidative stress, detected by immunohistochemistry using as target.